Preschoolers’ theory of mind (TOM) was examined in relation to the ability to pro- duce and benefit from a selective attention strategy on a selective location memory task. A set of TOM tasks assessed preschoolers’ (N = 49) understanding of mental states. Certain aspects of mental state understanding (e.g., quality of experience af- fects knowledge) were associated with using a selective attention strategy. Strategy use was positively related to memory for children who failed TOM tasks. However, strategy use was unrelated to memory for children who passed TOM tasks, indicating a utilization deficiency. Most children could not describe or explain how selective in- formation processing worked. Explanations, when provided, referred to physi- cal–perceptual (external) rather than psychological (internal) processes. This research and the guiding conceptual framework extend the study of TOM by suggest- ing how specific transitions within children’s copy TOM may contribute to the devel- opment of cognitive skills, such as attending, remembering, planning, and problem solving, traditionally examined by cognitive developmentalists.